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God Particle Found, God Particle 2012, Higgs Boson, God Particle Video

God Particle Found, God Particle 2012, Higgs Boson, God Particle Video
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Wednesday, 04 July 2012
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The Higgs boson is a hypothetical elementary particle predicted by the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics. It belongs to a class of particles known as bosons, characterized by an integer value of their spin quantum number. The Higgs field is a quantum field that fills all of space. Fundamental particles (or elementary particles) such as quarks and electrons acquire mass through the Higgs mechanism. The Higgs boson is the quantum of the Higgs field, just as the photon is the quantum of the electromagnetic field. The Higgs boson has a large mass, however, which is why a large accelerator is needed to study it. The existence of the Higgs boson is predicted by the Standard Model to explain how spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry (the Higgs mechanism) takes place in nature, which in turn explains why other elementary particles have mass. Its discovery would further validate the Standard Model as essentially correct, as it is the only elementary particle predicted by the Standard Model that has not yet been observed in particle physics experiments. The Standard Model completely fixes the properties of the Higgs boson, except for its mass. It is expected to have no spin and no electric or color charge, and it interacts with other particles through the weak interaction and Yukawa-type interactions between the various fermions and the Higgs field. Alternative sources of the Higgs mechanism that do not need the Higgs boson are also possible and would be considered if the existence of the Higgs boson were ruled out. They are known as Higgsless models. Experiments to determine whether the Higgs boson exists are currently being performed using the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, and were performed at Fermilab's Tevatron until its closure in late 2011. Mathematical consistency of the Standard Model requires that any mechanism capable of generating the masses of elementary particles become visible at energies above 1.4 TeV;therefore, the LHC (designed to collide two 7-TeV proton beams) is expected to be able to answer the question of whether or not the Higgs boson actually exists.[4] In December 2011, Fabiola Gianotti and Guido Tonelli, who were then spokespersons of the two main experiments at the LHC (ATLAS and CMS) both reported independently that their data hints at a possibility the Higgs may exist with a mass around 125 GeV/c2 (about 133 proton masses, on the order of 10−25 kg). They also reported that the original range under investigation has been narrowed down considerably and that a mass outside approximately 115–130 GeV/c2 is almost ruled out. No conclusive answer yet exists, although it is expected that the LHC will provide sufficient data by the end of 2012 for a definite answer. On 4 July 2012, Fabiola Gianotti and Joseph Incandela, current spokespersons for the ATLAS and CMS experiments, will present the latest results on the Higgs from the LHC.
Wednesday, 04 July 2012 by Vikas Mishra

London: Scientists at the CERN research centre near Geneva, Switzerland, will on Wednesday unveil the latest results in their search for the Higgs boson, a subatomic particle believed to be key to the formation of stars, planets and eventually life after the Big Bang 13.7 billion years ago.

What is the Higgs Boson?

The Higgs is the last missing piece of the Standard Model, the theory that describes the basic building blocks of the universe. The other 11 particles predicted by the model have been found and finding the Higgs would validate the model. Ruling it out or finding something more exotic would force a rethink on how the universe is put together.

What is the God particle? Why is it important?

Scientists believe that in the first billionth of a second after the Big Bang, the universe was a gigantic soup of particles racing around at the speed of light without any mass to speak of. It was through their interaction with the Higgs field that they gained mass and eventually formed the universe.

The Higgs field is a theoretical and invisible energy field that pervades the whole cosmos. Some particles, like the photons that make up light, are not affected by it and therefore have no mass. Others are not so lucky and find it drags on them as porridge drags on a spoon.

Picture George Clooney (the particle) walking down a street with a gaggle of photographers (the Higgs field) clustered around him. An average guy on the same street (a photon) gets no attention from the paparazzi and gets on with his day. The Higgs particle is the signature of the field - an eyelash of one of the photographers.

The particle is theoretical, first posited in 1964 by six physicists, including Briton Peter Higgs.

The search for it only began in earnest in the 1980s, first in Fermilab's now mothballed Tevatron particle collider near Chicago and later in a similar machine at CERN, but most intensively since 2010 with the start-up of the European centre's Large Hadron Collider.

What is the Standard Model?

The Standard Model is to physics what the theory of evolution is to biology. It is the best explanation physicists have of how the building blocks of the universe are put together. It describes 12 fundamental particles, governed by four basic forces.

But the universe is a big place and the Standard Model only explains a small part of it. Scientists have spotted a gap between what we can see and what must be out there. That gap must be filled by something we don't fully understand, which they have dubbed 'dark matter'. Galaxies are also hurtling away from each other faster than the forces we know about suggest they should. This gap is filled by 'dark energy'. This poorly understood pair are believed to make up a whopping 96 percent of the mass and energy of the cosmos.

Confirming the Standard Model, or perhaps modifying it, would be a step towards the holy grail of physics - a 'theory of everything' that encompasses dark matter, dark energy and the force of gravity, which the Standard Model also does not explain. It could also shed light on even more esoteric ideas, such as the possibility of parallel universes.

CERN spokesman James Gillies has said that just as Albert Einstein's theories enveloped and built on the work of Isaac Newton, the work being done by the thousands of physicists at CERN has the potential to do the same to Einstein's work.

What is the Large Hadron Collider?

The Large Hadron Collider is the world's biggest and most powerful particle accelerator, a 27-km (17-mile) looped pipe that sits in a tunnel 100 metres underground on the Swiss/French border. It cost 3 billion euros to build.

Two beams of protons are fired in opposite directions around it before smashing into each other to create many millions of particle collisions every second in a recreation of the conditions a fraction of a second after the Big Bang, when the Higgs field is believed to have 'switched on'.

The vast amount of data produced is examined by banks of computers. Of all the trillions of collisions, very few are just right for revealing the Higgs particle. That makes the hunt for the Higgs slow, and progress incremental.

What is the Threshold for Proof?

To claim a discovery, scientists have set themselves a target for certainty that they call "5 sigma". This means that there is a probability of less than one in a million that their conclusions from the data harvested from the particle accelerator are the result of a statistical fluke.

The two teams hunting for the Higgs at CERN, called Atlas and CMS, now have twice the amount of data that allowed them to claim 'tantalising glimpses' of the Higgs at the end of last year and this could push their results beyond that threshold.

 

Source : IBNlive

science evidences
Last replied by Shalini jaiswal on Wednesday, 04 July 2012
हिग्स बोसोन लगभग रोशनी की स्पीड रखता है और उसे पकड़ पाना मुश्किल है। उसे नजर में लाने के लिए इतनीएनर्जी चाहिए थी , जितनी अरबों बरस पहले यूनिवर्स के जन्म के आसपास कभी रही होगी। साइंटिस्टों ने सरकारोंको मनाया और जिनीवा के पास CERN ( यूरोपियन ऑर्गनाइजेशन फॉर न्यूक्लियर फिजिक्स ) में 10 अरबडॉलर की लागत से 27 किलोमीटर लंबी गोलाकार सुरंग बनाई गई , जिसे लार्ज हैड्रॉन कॉलाइडर कहा गया। इसकॉलाइडर में प्रोटोन्स को रोशनी की रफ्तार से दौड़ाकर आपस में टकराया गया। टक्कर से जो एनर्जी पैदा हुई ,इसमें कई कण वजूद में आए और तभी ऐसे संकेत मिले कि गॉड पार्टिकल भी पैदा हुआ है। वजूद में आते ही हिग्सबोसोन खत्म हो गया , पीछे उसके निशान बचे रहे। क्या ये सबूत काफी हैं नहीं , क्योंकि ये सिर्फ संकेत हैं। ठोस सबूतों के लिए अगले साल कई टक्करें करनी होंगी। लेकिन साइंटिस्टों कोउम्मीद बंध गई है। अगर गॉड पार्टिकल नहीं मिलता तो तब स्टैंडर्ड मॉडल फेल हो जाता और हर चीज के ठोस होने का , कणों की इस भीड़ का कोई सिर - पैर समझ मेंनहीं आता। साइंस के लिए यह बड़ा झटका होता। मैथमैटिक्स पर भी सवाल उठने लगता। क्या यह आखिरी सच है साइंस कभी आखिरी सच तक पहुंचने का दावा नहीं करती। जो बात एक अरब प्रयोगों में सही साबित हो चुकी हो ,वह भी एक अरब एकवें प्रयोग में फेल हो सकती है। लेकिन संसार को जानने और उसका एक मॉडल बनाने कातरीका यही है। अब भी कुछ साइंटिस्ट कह सकते हैं कि हिग्स बोसोन अपने आप में बेसिक नहीं है। लेकिन अगरउसके भी नीचे कोई दूसरा कण है तो उसे एक्सपेरिमेंट से जानने के लिए हमें इतनी एनर्जी चाहिए कि ठीक बिगबैंगजैसे हालात बनाने होंगे। कोई कॉलाइडर यह नहीं कर सकेगा। क्या दुनिया खत्म हो सकती थी गॉड पार्टिकल नाम ने इतनी सनसनी मचाई थी कि हैड्रॉन कॉलाइडर के शुरू होते ही दुनिया खत्म हो जाने की बातकही जा रही थी। अंदाजा यह था कि टक्कर के दौरान कोई ब्लैक होल बन जाएगा , जो दुनिया को निगल लेगा।जाहिर है वैसा कुछ नहीं हुआ , वरना यह खबर लिखी नहीं जा रही होती। क्या है इंडियन कनेक्शन बोसोन नाम भारतीय साइंटिस्ट सत्येंद्रनाथ बोस के नाम से निकला है। बोस और आइंस्टीन ने एक स्टैटिस्टिकलफॉर्म्युला पेश किया था , जो एक खास तरह के कणों की प्रॉपर्टी बताता है। ऐसे कण बोसोन कहलाते हैं।
Last replied by mahi on Wednesday, 04 July 2012
यूनिवर्स की हर चीज ( तारे , ग्रह और हम भी ) मैटर यानी पदार्थ से बनी है। मैटर अणु और परमाणुओं से बना है और मास वह फिजिकल प्रॉपर्टी है , जिससे इन कणों को ठोस रूप मिलता है। अगर मास नहीं है तो वह कण रोशनी की रफ्तार से भागता रहेगा और कभी दूसरे कणों से मिलकर किसी ठोस आकार में नहीं बदल सकेगा। मास जब ग्रेविटी से गुजरता है , तो वह भार की शक्ल में भी मापा जा सकता है , लेकिन भार अपने आप में मास नहीं होता , क्योंकि ग्रेविटी कम - ज्यादा होने से वह बदल जाता है। मास एक जैसा रहता है। साइंटिस्ट जब मैटर के भीतर घुसते गए तो कणों के नीचे कण मिलते गए , लेकिन थ्योरी तब तक पूरी नहीं हो सकती थी , जब तक कि यह पता नहीं चलता कि मास आता कहां से है। फिजिक्स में जब इन तमाम कणों को एक सिस्टम में रखने की ( स्टैंडर्ड मॉडल ऑफ पार्टिकल्स ) कोशिश की गई तो फॉर्म्युले में गैप दिखने लगे। इस गैप को भरने और मास की वजह बताने के लिए 1965 में पीटर हिग्स ने हिग्स बोसोन या गॉड पार्टिकल का आइडिया पेश किया। उस थ्योरी में बोसोन ऐसा मूल कण था , जिसका एक फील्ड था , जो यूनिवर्स में हर कहीं मौजूद था। जब कोई दूसरा कण इस फील्ड से गुजरता तो रेजिस्टेंस या रुकावट का सामना करता , जैसे कि कोई भी चीज पानी या हवा से गुजरते हुए करती है। जितना ज्यादा रेजिस्टेंस , उतना ज्यादा मास। स्टैंडर्ड मॉडल हिग्स बोसोन से मजबूत हो जाता था , लेकिन उसके होने का एक्सपेरिमेंटल सबूत चाहिए था।
Last replied by Shalini jaiswal on Wednesday, 04 July 2012
वहीं, एटलस एक्सपेरिमेंट प्रोजेक्ट पर काम कर रहे ब्रिटिश भौतिकशास्त्री ब्रॉयन कॉक्स के मुताबिक सीएमएस ने एक नया बोसोन खोजा है जो कि स्टेंडर्ड हिग्स बोसोन की तरह ही है। हालांकि कॉक्स ने यह भी कहा कि अधिक जानकारी के लिए हिग्स सिग्नल को प्रत्येक इवेंट में 30- प्रोटान-प्रोटान कॉलिजन कराना पड़ेगा जो कि काफी मुश्किल होगा क्योंकि यह एटलस प्रोजेक्ट की डिजाइन क्षमता के बाहर की बात है।
Last replied by Shalini jaiswal on Wednesday, 04 July 2012